This image is often used in newspaper cartoons: Europe impregnable fortress for many illegal immigrants lapping at the gates of Europe. Images coastguard stopping passengers on a small motorboat in the middle of the Mediterranean are legion. But beyond this symbol, the migration issue is much broader and more complex, it uses the records of a internal and external security, diplomacy, macroeconomic and social cohesion balances and includes the following issues:
- circulation in the Schengen area and visa policy
- the fight against illegal immigration
- "humanitarian management" of illegal immigration
- the policy of attracting "brains"
- integration issues of people of foreign origin, foreign or naturalized and the fight against discrimination.