Globalization brings economic and social inequalities, but also land, insofar territories have divergent competitive advantages. This leads to disparities up territorial fractures carriers political and social imbalances. The issue of territorial competitiveness becomes a key issue and largely influences regional development policies. The territory is indeed a relevant scale for solutions to the challenge of globalization.Learn more
Competitiveness can be measured against criteria such as economic performance, political, business efficiency and infrastructure availability. However, one of the crucial factors in the competitiveness of a territory is innovation: there is indeed a strong interdependence between innovation and competitiveness at the macro level as well, GDP per capita is correlated positively to the degree of innovation in the region (which however is not causation). However, the need to promote innovation is often underestimated in public policies of the countries of southern Europe, such as in companies where the cultural component weighs on confidence and cooperation between economic agents and citizens, which has a major impact on innovation and economic growth. Thus we observe a line north-south division in European countries.
In the framework of the Euro-Mediterranean Partnership, the priority issue is the establishment of a free trade agreement that would allow the construction of a large integrated European market Mediterranean market. Within this market, the development of cross-border trade flows should be based on the complementarity of the economies of purchase and technology north power, cheap labor south. However, economically, the outcome of Barcelona is very thin: sluggish growth in foreign direct investment (FDI) and international trade in the area reveals the weakness of the process of economic integration and trade .Learn more
Clusters were often initially developed without any public intervention: it is their success in terms of economic performance that makes today's highly public authorities to use this tool in their innovation policies, the active support Political becoming crucial in the creation and development of clusters.
All levels of governance involved in policies to support clusters if they are first at the national or even regional level, if only because of the strong territorial dimension they contain, the Union Europe is also heavily involved in the promotion policy clusters, although its incentives are different from those of the Member States in nature.Learn more
The case of a French region (PACA), two Italian regions (Piedmont, Lombardy), two Spanish regions (Basque Country, Murcia) and Greece
Regions covered in this reflection reflect the diversity of policies to support clusters in Europe and their impact on the development of the latter. This plurality both policy clusters can be attributed to several factors.
The organization of the state plays a decisive role: as the state is unitary, that is to say, centralized or federal type, with regions with a high degree of autonomy, political support clusters will be more important at the national level or at the regional level, although both types can co-exist.Learn more
The concept of cluster, commonly associated with a key engine of growth and competitiveness, became pregnante in the economy and public policy. Since the late 1990s, and even earlier for some areas, training clusters have increased, relayed by a conscious policy to support and strengthen a movement born out of its institutional bodies. Today, clusters further strengthen the principle of open where they sit in opening international and cooperating with other clusters, national or foreign innovation.Learn more