Insoluble land question without strong political will
The land tenure system in the southern and eastern Mediterranean is a major impediment to rapid urban growth and balanced systems of land tenure are everywhere "pluralistic."
They are sets in which the Muslim land law is not the only source, or even the most important. It is hinged to a fund of pre-Islamic origin customs (the orf) and the colonial and postcolonial legislation. None of the major sources of land law, which succeeded in history, has wiped out the previous but no Nor is fully maintained in its original form. It is indeed complex pluralist systems.
Institutional units underlying security of tenure: the cadastre, registration or tools securitization systems are everywhere deficient or obsolete, thus limiting the room for maneuver by collective actors, in terms of production of legitimacy and institutional framework.